Monday, May 25, 2020

The Impacts of Change Management Practices on Project...

Construction Management and Economics (April 2008) 26, 387–393 The impacts of change management practices on project change cost performance YI ZOU1 and SANG-HOON LEE2* 1 2 FMC Technologies Inc., Houston, USA Department of Engineering Technology, University of Houston, 304A Technology Bldg, University of Houston, Houston 77204, USA Received 18 June 2007; accepted 15 January 2008 Change cost is one of the most sensitive aspects of construction project management, but it is also one of the most difficult to control. It has been widely recognized that construction projects that adopt change management practices generally incur lower change costs in comparison with project budgets. The relationship between change management†¦show more content†¦Table 1 illustrates the demographic composition of the BMM database based on respondent type, project nature and industrial group. As can be seen in Table 1, most of the projects are in the heavy industry sector. Such an extremely uneven sample population distribution poses difficulty in the subsequent data analyses, and it is therefore one of the primary considerations when the analysis techniques are selected. Appendix II presents the 14 questions used in this research. Zou and Lee of projects (Construction Industry Institute, 2003). With all of these considerations, this research only focuses on the impacts of change management practice on project change cost performance. Research objectives It is worth noting that this research is to be explanatory instead of confirmative or predictive. In other words, the purpose of this research is to reveal potential correlations1 among project characteristics, change management practice and project change cost performance. The two main objectives of this research are (1) to investigate the effectiveness of individual change management practice elements in terms of improving project change cost performance—e.g. for a particular change management practice element, could the construction project using it have a high probability of

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Prison Overcrowding And Its Effects On The United States...

Per Derek Gilna’s report on Increase in Federal Prison Population, Overcrowding, prisons have become overpopulated throughout a five-year span from 2006 to 2011 (Gilna, page 48). Prison overcrowding has become a plague in the United States for some time now. The US Bureau of Justice Statistics shows more than two-million adults are incarcerated in US federal and state prisons. There are many reasons that prisons are becoming overpopulated but not such a certain cause. To fix the problem, attention must be brought towards the causes of this problem. Its happen to become a serious issue because it affects the prisoners, tax payers, prison staff and millions of others living in the U.S. as well. To put a stop to this continuous problem, action must take place to start prison reform and to structure our country to punish criminals in manner that is more reasonable than how we currently do it in today’s world. Mostly everyone today might have some type of relation or connect ion to a person that may be in jail or prison. That person may have committed a more serious crime than others that probably made a mistake but somehow ended up incarcerated for a very long time whether they were innocent or guilty. The rate of incarceration in the US is indeed high. Nearly, 455 people per every 100,000 people are incarcerated (Smolowe, 1994). These numbers are higher than any other country in the world. Looking at South Africa, our second closest, there are only 311 people per ever 100,000Show MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Prison Overcrowding On The United States Essay1713 Words   |  7 PagesThe United States has the biggest imprisonment rate on the planet, and paying a high cost for it. Detainment strength finished in the mid-1970s when the jail populace expanded from 300,000 to 1.6million detainees, and the imprisonment rate from 100 for each 100,000 to more than 500 for every 100,000. Nonetheless, there is by all accounts little relationship between the wrongdoin g rate and the imprisonment rate (Clear et al., 2013). One of the causes of prison overcrowding comes about because of theRead MoreOvercrowding And Its Effects On The United States Prison System1178 Words   |  5 Pages Overcrowding prisons are an issue that has been influencing the United States prison population for decades, however what is the true significance of overcrowding. As indicated by Jeff Bleich (1989) â€Å"the term overcrowding is repetitive, since crowding already refers to a higher level of social density than is desired†. An overcrowded prison is a shocking condition that causes outrage and dissatisfaction among detainees (Haney, 2014). This condition is so undesirable that one can consider it as unconstitutionalRead MorePrison Overcrowding Essay1184 Words   |  5 Pages Prison Overcrowding Nicole Neal American Intercontinental University Abstract This research paper is to explore the impact of prison overcrowding. The United States has a, what seems to be everlasting, prison overcrowding problem. Not only does the United States have this dilemma, but also many other countries have overcrowded prisons as well. Many issues need to be addressed; ways to reduce the prison populations and how to effectively reduce prison cost withoutRead MorePrison Overcrowding And The United States1555 Words   |  7 Pagesones.† The prisons in the United States have been overcrowded for many years and require a change in order to fix this. Some of the main causes for prison overcrowding that will be covered in this paper are mass incarceration, long sentencing, recidivism, and prisoners of drug crimes. Overcrowding of prisons in the United States is a major issue that affects not only the prisoners themselves, but taxpayers and politicians. Although there are many different solutions to prison overcrowding such as buildingRead MorePrison Overcrowding : The United States1535 Words   |  7 Pages 2017 Prison Overcrowding The United States has the highest number of incarcerated individuals than other countries. Offenders are arrested every day for minor and major offences such as murder. America is hard on crime. When someone breaks the law the criminal justice’s system seeks an eye for an eye. Prison overcrowding has become a major problem in the United States, it is very expensive to house an inmate and there are other methods to punish offenders without sending them to prison for extendedRead MoreEffects Of Prison Overcrowding1345 Words   |  6 Pagesproblems and a few of the effects that prison overcrowding causes towards the inmates and the guards. I will first address the issue of violence that prison overcrowding causes. My next point will be the health of the inmates discussing both their physical and mental while in overcrowded prisons. Lastly I will discuss the physical and mental health of the correctional officers and how the job could lead to correctional officers having issues in their private life. Prison Overcrowding has become a majorRead MorePrison Overcrwoding in America and England1234 Words   |  5 PagesPrison overcrowding in the United States is due to many reoccurring charges that is being sentenced to inmates that have been released and returning. As the increasing inmate population is a growing concern in the U.S, many law enforcement agencies and academic expert have analyzed data about the situation and are working to combat it. Research shows that Drugs are mainly to blame. Of the inmates in federal prison as of September 2011, more than half or 50.4% was serving sentences for drug offensesRead MoreThe Overcrowding Of The Correctional Facilities1730 Words   |  7 Pagesthreat to maintaining this balance is the overcrowding of prisons. In 2011, the United States Supreme Court ruled that massive overcrowding of California prisons violates its prisoner’s eighth amendment right protecting them from cruel and unusual punishment (Boylan, 2015, p. 558). At the time California’s correctional institutions were at double their capacity, housing over 155, 500 prisoners in only 33 institutions (Specter, 2010, p. 194). The overcrowding of correctional facilities is one of theRead MoreIncreased Population of Prisons Essay1606 Words   |  7 PagesOvercrowded prisons and improper punishment systems are enormous social issues for our government. The United States has seen steady growth in its prisons. A projected increment in seen due to â€Å"get-tough† policies that locks up offenders for longer sentences (Ohlemacher, 2007, para. 1). The correction system had been through various phases of transformation, and the government had been tough on crime; this approach had resulted in rising prison populations. There are many factors that cause overcrowdingRead MorePrison Systems Do Not Control The Number Of Prisoners Sent1286 Words   |  6 PagesCrimes in America 26 March 27, 2016 Overcrowding in Prisons The prison systems do not control the number of prisoners sent to jails. However, they have to deal with the consequences of this fact. In the last twenty years, all over the world, it is experienced a rapid increase in the number of prisoners. This growth is not limited to any particular type of jurisdiction or political system - it is observed in all regions of the world. According to the incapacitation effect, the shorter the span of opportunity

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Rwanda Genocide and Refugee Crisis Essay example

How can I ever forget the scene where my husband was massacred right in my presence. It was a nightmare. It was a nightmare. I live through it every day and it is engraved forever in my memory.† During one April, not so long ago, the world sat back and watched as a turbulent political situation in central Africa turned into something the world will never be able to forget. 800,000 people murdered in just 100 days, 800,000 people needlessly slaughtered at the hands of extremists, 800,000 men, women, and children gone because of a more serious problem rooted in social prejudice and inequality, 800,000 killed in a genocide that the world could do nothing about until it was too late. Almost 50 years after the world pledged to never let†¦show more content†¦Next, the issue of return and repartition will be explored, including the issues of the forced repartition of refugees as well as the socio-political factors that returning refugees and the Rwandan government must not only face, but deal with. Finally, this paper will talk about the future for Rwanda and the future of refugees within the Great Lakes region of Africa. In order to help visualize the processes of re fugee movements, as well as the geography of the Great Lakes region, a map of the region has been included in Appendix 1. The Creation of a Refugee Crisis: War and Genocide The violent events of 1994 were not something that occurred by surprise or without warning. Ethnic tensions and political unrest have fueled a hostile environment within Rwanda as well as within other countries in the surrounding Great Lakes region for many years, the roots of which date back to well before the conflict in 1994 began. In order to truly understand the genocide that occurred, events dating back to 1959 and even before must be briefly examined. A majority of the ethnic tensions throughout the tumultuous history of Rwanda lies within the two major groups known as the Hutu and the Tutsi. As Tony Waters points out â€Å"ThereShow MoreRelatedRwanda s Current Government And Foreign Policy878 Words   |  4 Pages Rwandans experienced periods of exile, internal displacement and refugee status since the closing years of Rwanda’s colonial rule under Belgium. Starting in 1959 and up until what could still be argued as on-going is a section of the Rwandan population not being able to living in their ancestral homeland. There are two significant period of Rwandan exile in terms of Rwanda’s current government and foreign policy. The first was the period of 1959 to 1962 when an estimated one million, mostly TutsiRead MoreThe Rwandan Genocide And The Genocide1654 Words   |  7 PagesRwandan Genocide A genocide is defined as the deliberate killing of a group of people, especially of a certain ethnicity. By that definition and almost any other a dictionary could define, the killing of the Tutsis was certainly a genocide.The Rwandan Genocide occurred in 1994, in an African country called Rwanda. A long history of building friction between the Hutus and the Tutsis undeniably caused the mass murder of over 800,000 Tutsis, but various countries’ failure to act allowed the genocide to goRead MoreViolations of Human Rights Essay1122 Words   |  5 Pagesthe Gates, shows audiences the horror that took place during the Rwandan genocide. Shot in the same area as the actual genocide took place, the film tells the story of the Hutu extremist attempt at destroying the countries minority group known as the Tutsi. Many human rights violations were shown in this movie, shedding light on the real issue of how the international community failed to intervene during this time of crisis and p revent the deaths of thousands of people. A few examples of human rightsRead MoreThe Conflict Of Syria During The Arab Spring Protests1147 Words   |  5 Pageshundred-thousands. About 7.6 million people are internally displaced, One in a five Syrian is now refugee. More than four million Syrians have fled their homes. Neighboring countries take in most refugees. (UCHR). Around 14000 children were killed. The Assad regime and the rebel groups were already investigated, and the Assad regime implicated in the use of chemical weapons of war by UN auditors. Figure 1: Syrian refugee crisis Source: www.aljazeera.com According to Human Rights Watch, hospitals have becomeRead MoreModern Genocide in Africa Essay928 Words   |  4 Pageshave been two instances of genocide: the 1972 mass killings of Hutus by the Tutsi-dominated government, and the 1993 mass killings of the Tutsis by the Hutu populace. Both of these events in Burundi received different levels of attention by the international community and the western media due to a lack of foreign governmental interest, political distraction, and an unwillingness to acknowledge the severity of these atrocities in Burundi. Interestingly, events of genocide occurring at times withoutRead MoreGenocide and the Propaganda Media Essay1446 Words   |  6 Pagesfeeling of being a bystander as countries slaughter their own people has been in legal debate since 1933, it has gradually developed into a concept that can be applied in many situations, both historical and contemporary. The meaning of the phrase genocide is the cleansing of a race or ethnicity i n a country. There has been evidence that this phrase can be used to describe past and present day massacres being committed around the world and how media has changed its perception on this issue overtimeRead MoreExtermination in Genocide1105 Words   |  5 PagesMarch 2012 Extermination in Genocide All genocides that have occurred in human history include various stages that are usually present; however, extermination, the 7th stage of genocide, is one that is present in all genocides. From the Armenian genocide and Darfur genocide, to the Rwandan and Jewish genocides, extermination is ever present in all of these. Extermination is explained to be mass killings of people, which defines the legal term â€Å"genocide†, and is caused when the killersRead MoreViolence Is A Form Of Violence1838 Words   |  8 Pagesconcept of violence is genocide. There has been much contest over the definition of genocide, but generally it refers to the intentional destruction of a particular race, ethnicity, religious group, or nationality. Genocide is a form of violence that has plagued history throughout time in both ancient and modern societies—from the Moriori genocide in 1835 to the current day genocide in Darfur. One of the most ambiguous cases of genocide since the Holocaust was the Rwandan genocide, which began in 1994Read MoreThe Death Of Genocide : The Annihilation Of Minorities Essay1548 Words   |  7 Pages Genocide is the systematic mass murder of an ethnic, race, religious, or national group based on discriminatory preconceptions (Payne 33). The heart of genocide is destruction: the annihilation of minorities. Minorities have always been the scapegoat for most governments in times of crisis or when the government has been mismanaged. Minorities are even considered non-human. The annihilation of a specific target group does raise to question why and how this would be carried out. A genocide happensRead MoreThe Political And Media Views On The Genocide3280 Words   |  14 Pagesindividuals will know multi situations that happened in the genocide of Rwanda. All in all, the focus is clearly on the political and media views on the genocide, but overall this paper talks about what happened before, during, and after the genocide, to get a complete understanding of what actual went on. Before the genocide, there was already a division between the Hutus and Tutsis. This came about because Eur opean colonist moved into Rwanda causing many issues. During the war A plane the president

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Naomi Shihab Nye free essay sample

Anna Speed Abernathy Honors 9th Grade Literature March 2, 2011 Kindness Critical Analysis Kindness -Naomi Shihab Nye Before you know what kindness really is You must lose things, Feel the future dissolve in a moment Like salt in a weakened broth. What you held in your hand, What you counted and carefully saved, All this must go so you know How desolate the landscape can be Between the regions of kindness. How you ride and ride Thinking the bus will never stop, The passengers eating maize and chicken Will stare out the window forever. Before you learn the tender gravity of kindness, You must travel where the Indian in a white ponchoLies dead by the side of the road. You must see how this could be you, How he too was someone Who journeyed through the night with plans And the simple breath that kept him   alive. Before you know kindness as the deepest thing inside, You must know sorry as the other deepest thing. We will write a custom essay sample on Naomi Shihab Nye or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page You must wake up with sorrow. You must speak to it till your voice Catches the thread of all sorrows And you see the size of the cloth. Then it is only kindness that makes sense anymore, Only kindness that ties your shoes And sends you out into the day to mail letters and purchase bread, Only kindness that raises its headFrom the crowd of the world to say It is I you have been looking for, And then goes with you everywhere Like a shadow or a friend. Colombia. Do you know what kindness really is? The poem â€Å"Kindness†, by Naomi Shihab Nye, is a deep and meaningful poem that uses personification, free verse rhythm, simile, and alliteration to bring out the message that society does not fully understand kindness until one looses something, and this can be seen throughout American history as well. Critics Pamela Steed Hill and Anna Maria Hong give their opinions on Nye’s work. Each explains what they personally think it means. Nye thinks that kindness is one of the most important things in society today. To begin, the theme is evident throughout the text. The main theme as a whole is that kindness is not completely understood or appreciated by society. People sometimes become blinded to life’s opportunities to kindness, or kindness itself. Some people would agree that it is one of the most treasured and hard to come by values. Compared to the saying â€Å"you don’t know what you have until it’s gone†, the author also believes that one may have to lose something, or even everything, to understand what kindness really means.Society can become too focused on the future and reaching goals instead of stopping and smelling the roses along the way. Nye uses straightforward language to make points so that readers can fully understand the meaning. Her use of the word â€Å"you† refers to a universal you. That means that she is talking to whoever is reading this poem at whatever time. It doesn’t matter who the reader is. Kindness is more complex than it seems, and she uses poetic devices to emphasize that point. To begin this point, Naomi Shihab Nye uses personification, free verse rhythm, simile, and alliteration in this poem to give readers her full message.Much personification is used to show that kindness can change a lot of things in your life if you let it. For example, â€Å"Then it is only kindness that makes sense anymore, Only kindness that ties your shoes† (Nye lines 27-28) explains that once you truly understand what kindness is, everything you do is done because you want to be kind. â€Å"Only kindness that raises its head from the crowd of the world to say It is I you have been looking for,† (Nye Lines 30-33). This means that even when you feel like no one else is there for you, you can still be kind.It will never turn away from you. â€Å"And then it goes with you everywhere like a shadow or a friend† (Nye Lines 33-34) helps add to this point. Even in the world’s hardest times, people can still find ways to be kind. The next poetic device is free verse. Nye decided to use free verse for the rhyme scheme of this poem. It creates a subtle rhythm and plain language to make a point. Instead of being focused on the flow and rhyme of the poem, she makes sure that readers listen to the theme. Simile is used a few times throughout the text as well.For example, â€Å"feel the future dissolve in a moment like salt in a weakened broth† (Nye lines 3-4) just goes back to part of the theme that says that one must lose something in order for them to view things differently. The salt in a weakened broth refers to the way that the future seems to slip out from your fingers. Just like when salt dissolves and makes all the difference in a weak soup, kindness can make all the difference in ones future. The last poetic devise is alliteration. Alliteration repeats the first consonant sounds in words to keep the readers interested and put emphasis on a point. Feel the future† (Nye line 3) and â€Å"held in your hand† (Nye line 6) is some of this poems alliteration. It simply adds effect to how one should really feel kindness. Things can seem to slip right out of your hands but kindness will always be there. Lastly, critics Pamela Steed Hill and Anna Maria Hong give their opinions on this poem. Hill begins by saying that Nye knows that kindness is not always plainspoken and accessible, even though she speaks directly and easily to readers. People cannot only read this poem, but have to learn from their experiences in order to fully understand Nye’s point.Therefore, Hill thinks that when people go through hard times, they understand the gift of kindness, no matter how small it may be. Anna Maria Hong says similar things to Pamela Steed Hill. Hong says that Nye offers that instead of being a random act, kindness is received after going through certain experiences. She also enjoys the use of metaphors and personification. One great point that Hong makes is that she believes that the Indian on the bus refers to feeling uncomfortable or foreign in an environment. Most people look out the window instead of embracing it. If this poem was compared to an event in real life, one might use an example of going to a new school. When a kid or teenager enters a new territory, they may not feel socially accepted at first. It is human nature that making friends is not an easy task. That is why other peers should be kind toward new student. You never know what kind of friend you might get unless you try. However, most people don’t know what being a new student is like unless they have actually been one themselves. In conclusion, Naomi Shihab Nye has written a truly meaningful poem about the meaningfulness of kindness. Once one knows what kindness really is, you will always be reminded of it. However, Nye says that you must loose things in order to gain the full feeling of it. She uses personification, free verse rhythm, simile, and alliteration to make all of the most important points in this poem. Pamela Steed Hill and Anna Maria Hong give their opinions, and overall, enjoyed this poem. Students should socially accept and be kind toward a new student as well. Little situations like that can help people feel kindness. It is one of the most valued traits in society, and Naomi Shihab Nye does an excellent job in explaining that.

Friday, April 10, 2020

Jazz Essays (1058 words) - English-language Films,

Jazz Jazz has been an influence in many artist's work, from painting to other forms of music. Jazz is an American music form that was developed from African-American work songs. The white man began to imitate them in the 1920's and the music form caught on and became very popular. Two artists that were influenced by jazz were Jean-Michel Basquiat and Stuart Davis. The influence is quite evident in many of their works, such as Horn Players, by Basquiat, and Swing Landscape, by Davis. Stuart Davis was born in Philadelphia in 1894. He grew up in an artistic environment, his father was art director of a Philadelphia newspaper, who had employed Luks, Glackens, and other members of the Eight. He studied with Robert Henri from 1910 to 1913, made covers and drawings for the social realist periodical The Masses, which was associated with the Ash-can School, and exhibited watercolors in the Armory Show, which made an overwhelming impact on him. After a visit to Paris in 1928 he introduced a new note into U.S. cubism, basing himself on its synthetic rather than its analytical phase. Using natural forms, particularly forms suggesting the characteristic environment of American life, he rearranged them into flat poster-like patterns with precise outlines and sharply contrasting colors. He later went on to pure abstract patterns, into which he often introduced lettering, suggestions of advertisements, and posters. The zest and dynamism of such works as Swing Landscape reflect his interest in jazz, which Davis considered to be the counterpart to abstract art. Davis is often considered to be the outstanding American artist to work in a cubism idiom. He made witty and original use of it and created a distinctive American style, for however abstract his works became he always claimed that every image he used had its source in observed reality. Davis once said I paint what I see in America, in other words I paint the American scene. Stuart Davis' works of the late 1930's celebrate the urban and technological environment and are quite complex and frequently recall Legers's brightly coloured geometric forms. Early works depict saloons and ragtime musicians. Titles and images of his works in the 30's reflect syncopation and unusual rhythm of jazz, particularly swing . Jean-Michel Basquiat was born in 1960, four years before Stuart Davis' death. At an early age Basquiat showed an interest and love for drawing. His mother often took him to The Brooklyn Museum, The Museum of Modern Art, and The Metropolitan Museum of Art. At the age of seven he and a friend of his wrote and illustrated a children's book. Basquiat was inspired by Alfred Hitchcock films, cars, comic books, and Alfred E. Newman from Mad Magazine. By the time he was seven he was an avid reader of French, Spanish, and English texts. In his teenage years Basquiat ran away from home often. He did not like obedience. By 1978 he was in with the in crowd. The filmmakers and artists of New York. He enjoyed doing graffiti work using the name SAMO ( same old *censored* ). Basquiat's career was divided into three broad phases. From 1980 to 1982 he used painterly gestures, mostly skeletal figures that signal his obsession with mortality. He also used figures that represent street existence, such as policeman, buildings, and graffiti. From 1982 to 1985 he was using more phrases and words in his paintings. They reveal a strong interest in his black and hispanic identity and his identification with historical and contemporary black figures and events. The last phase was from 1986 until his death in 1988. His work displays a new type of figurative depiction, using different symbols, sources, and content. He was seeking a new territory in his work. When Basquiat's Horn Players and Davis' Swing Landscape are displayed side by side it is quite obvious that they were done by two different artist. In Swing Landscape it is not obvious that this piece was inspired by jazz, as where in Horn Players the influence of jazz is evident. These painters have two completely different styles but are inspired by the same types of things. They are inspired by society and music. They both appreciate the art value of music, especially jazz. Stuart Davis' Swing Landscape is quite colorful and vibrant. The colors give a feeling of jazz with the use of blues and cool colors. The use of the warm colors shows the unpredictability of jazz. There are many forms of geometric shapes used in this painting. The shapes used in this painting again show

Monday, March 9, 2020

Innovations in the Cell Phone Industry and Sustainability

Innovations in the Cell Phone Industry and Sustainability Abstract Environmental sustainability has been receiving corporate attention in the 21st century. Various industries have been employing different measures on how to ensure environmental safety. The cell phone industry has also entered into this noble initiative in a broad dimension.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Innovations in the Cell Phone Industry and Sustainability specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A polluted environment affects all the stakeholders including customers, suppliers, employees and the entire public. Therefore, firms should adhere to waste management practices in order to make good use of the by-products thereby enhancing environmental conservation techniques. The cell phone industry makes products that are friendly to the environment and develops mobile applications that can help in enhancing environmental sustainability. These innovative products also help in keeping the environment clea n. Innovations in the Cell Phone Industry and Sustainability Environmental sustainability entails making drastic decisions and actions towards protecting the environment. This initiative ensures that the environment is preserved thereby being able to support human life. Currently, this issue has been among the world’s top agendas, from multinational companies to individual levels and from different government departments to media houses. Organizations are instituting measures that will have less negative effects on the environment than before. Since all businesses have to use energy and release waste products, environmental sustainability tries to make these businesses engage in activities that make them sustainable in the present environs (Is Your Cell Phone Sustainable? 2011). In a recent survey on companies’ thinking on climate change, McKinsey and Company (2008) found that the greatest percentage of executives surveyed consider climate change strategically signific ant, and about 60% take it into account in developing and marketing new products.Advertising Looking for research paper on communications media? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The cell phone industry has not only been at the fore front in implementing some strategies that will enable them survive in the present atmosphere but also come up with innovative products that can assist in ensuring environmental sustainability. For instance, cell phone industries have tried to shrink their environmental footprints by manufacturing smaller and lighter cell phones (Technology Environmental Sustainability Initiatives n.d.). Smaller gadgets imply the use of less energy in transportation, recycling and reuse, less raw materials extracted and less shipping spaces. Currently, mobile phone manuals are distributed electronically thus reducing paper usage, which are always obtained from trees. From this perspective, cell phone indu stries are using innovation to promote a greener ecosystem. In addition, cell phone industries have made solar powered phones. This innovative idea is reducing overreliance on non-renewable sources of energy like electricity. Apart from the solar powered phones, most of the companies have designed energy efficient mobile phones; these phones take a long time before recharging thus saving money and minimizing gas emissions. This efficiency is seen in the way Nokia has reduced the amount of no-load energy by close to 90%. In 2007, Nokia sent alert into phones in alerting the public to unplug their chargers while, not in use. Nokia boasts of creating all their devices with an environmental mind. An example is the Nokia Lumia 820 (Apps services – Nokia 2013). It has an in-device user guide, packed in a small box made of renewable materials. However, a small printed guide with highlighted usage tips is on Green page while full information is available on nokia.com (Sustainable mo bile products 2013).Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Innovations in the Cell Phone Industry and Sustainability specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This phone has maps that help in locating directions for pedestrians and travellers; this innovative idea reduces overreliance on papers. The materials are all recyclable and are free from harmful metals like nickel and mercury. Apple Company has powered all its facilities using renewable sources of energy. This initiative lessens carbon foot print, thereby raising the hopes of approaching a green ecosystem. To add to that, Apple introduced iPhone 3G ships that had PVC free USB cables, headphones and a free display mercury-arsenic (Apple Apple and the Environment 2013). A continuous study into the environmental status report of the phone shows that it has a recyclable aluminium enclosure and an efficient power adapter that outperforms strictest global energy. These were in line with the ENERGY STAR requirement. Clearly, these features reduce environmental impact. Even though a mobile phone is a small electronic gadget that causes a negligible impact to environmental degradation, a total number of 1.6 billion phones that were sold in 2011 cause a significant effect on the quantity of waste per unit. Therefore, this calls for measures on how to minimize waste in the environment. The cell phone industries like Nokia, Motorola, AT T have adopted the initiative of ensuring that they use non-plastic inserts and trays by the end of 2013 (Sustainable Mobile Phone n.d.). These packages such as the phone casing are to be made from less pollutant objects. The organic chemicals that were to be used in making batteries were to be less volatile in order to minimize pollutions.Advertising Looking for research paper on communications media? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition, the cell phone industry has opted to recycle their products like battery contents and the casings which are environmentally friendly. In designing sustainable products, firms aim at yielding improvement in the environment and increased revenue, as well. Smart phones are made in a way that one is able to communicate with a large group of people at a time; they have cameras and USB cables for transfer of data. Some of its applications that have proved useful to environmental activist are discussed below. The first one is the Visibility App that measures the quality of air. One can use an Android Phone to take a picture of the atmosphere and transmits it to a centralized server to interpret, compare and generate the data (Ganguly 2012). Afterwards, the mobile operator receives a notification that indicates the extent of pollution. This app was the work of the University of South Carolina’s Robotic lab. The next application is the Leaf View Project. This app helps in discovering new species of plants and animals in a crowded environment. After identification, one has to compare it with the central database. Moreover, one can study the consequences of global warming on these species. Since global warming and climate change leads to species extinction; this app will assist in keeping these species within an environment hence helping to approach towards a greener ecosystem. Goods Guide and 3rd Whale are the other applications. They promote a greener and sustainable environment by scanning of sustainable products and businesses in the locality and with the assistance of the GiftRocket application; one can purchase products through phone. The 3rd Whale app uses a GPRS system to locate the businesses and products. There is also the VerdeEnergy and EnergySaver application in the smart phones. These apps help in tracking energy consumption and planning for efficient utilization of energy in homesteads. A controlled energy usage enhances the cleanliness of an environment. The fifth app is the EcoSpeed and GreenMeter; they are used in tracking a vehicle’s fuel efficiency and daily movements. Of much interest is that EcoSpeed app can identify routes that consume less fuel than other routes. Clearly, the apps help to minimize environmental pollution that could have resulted due to excess use of fuel. There is also the Bar code technology that can be used to control illegal felling of trees (Ganguly 2012). In this technology, trees are assigned codes that are fed in the central database. Helveta Company is applying this technology to Forest cutters such that trees that are brought at the company without bar codes are deemed illegal. These smart phone applications, undoubtedly, assist in achieving environmental sustainability. The giant cell phone industry Samsung developed Eco-Design Assessment system in 2004. This assessment technique was to ensure that all Samsung’s products complied with the global environmental regul ations (Eco-Design 2013). In 2009, eco-rating system came in force. In terms of product development there is the Samsung Galaxy Note II; in this smart phone, one can create, edit and store documents. Using the S Pen, one can write and store data; therefore, this technology minimizes the use of papers, wooden pencils and plastic pens. Notably, elimination of these writing materials will help create sustainable and greener ecosystems. The short life span of smart phones is a key challenge to the cell phone industries (Mobile Phones n.d.). This shows that consumers dispose a high number of these products annually thus resulting to immense environmental degradation. These phones have a sizeable amount of minerals like gold and copper, toxic metals like mercury and lead in sizeable amounts. Since a high number of smart phones are disposed within a short time, the small amount of toxic metals multiply thus causing underground water and air pollution. Additionally, cell phone industries fa ce an uphill task of eliminating electromagnetic radiations that mobile phones emit to the environment. Specifically, mobile phones use microwave which is harmful to human health. Some researchers had shown the relationship between biological effects and exposure to mobile phones. The WHO in 2011 also noted that use of mobile phones can cause health risks. Recently, some researchers found out that cell phones can affect the brain and salivary gland tumours. These observations pose immense challenges to the cell phone industries in introducing their products in the market. In addition, another research showed that heavy mobile phone users are over 40% prone to contracting brain cancer (Mobile Phones n.d.). Even though there are still uncertainties on these observations, consumers remain alert on the possible consequences of using large phones like the smart phones. Further, the manufacture and replacement of integrated circuits are the main cause of electronic waste. Cell phone indus tries will have to institute mass education on the health risks of using mobile phones, since there is still no concrete evidence to prove the claimed effects. This initiative will be a costly one, but it will help in altering the perceptions of the public towards purchasing new mobile phones. For instance, iPhones have wide surface area; one can assume that it has more radioactive emission thereby avoiding them. Additionally, these industries ought to carry out numerous researches in order to manufacture greener mobile phones (Johnstone 2013).) Therefore, the mobile devices should have minimal heath risks, long lifespan, be recyclable at the end of life and perform efficiently. App developers are constantly coming up with new apps that are useful as they aid the current activities. These apps are developed in the new sustainable products so that they continue serving their purpose. The cell phone industries should understand the nature of their markets when manufacturing their prod ucts. For instance, they should make the applications look easy to understand so that all customers can buy and find it easy to use. Samsung should carry out more sale promotions on different media about their Galaxy cell phones than before. The same should apply to the Apple Company in advertising their iPhones. Since environmentally friendly products have adverse favourable effects to the environment, these companies should clearly outline the overall benefits of their products to the customers (Mobile phone industry takes baby steps toward sustainability 2009). Markedly, the companies should have a strategy or forecast on how to serve different customers who cannot afford some phones of high prices. The cell phone industry has adopted environmentally friendly approaches that if all industries can replicate, then the environment will remain sustainable for all. From their energy conservation measures like Apple’s use of renewable source of energy to development of environme ntally-friendly batteries that use less energy in the long run, they are working towards a sustainable environment. The industry has also adopted phone recycling mechanisms and targets educating their consumers on these measures. Through innovation, the firms have made tremendous steps towards approaching a greener ecosystem. This is evident from the entire essay. However, the cell phone companies have to develop greener mobile phones with applications which will help in enhancing environmental sustainability. Bibliography Apple Apple and the Environment 2013. Apple. Web. Apps services Nokia 2013. Cell Phones and Smartphones Nokia USA. Web. Eco-Design. 2013. About Samsung. Web. Environment Sustainability n.d., Samsung US. Web. Ganguly, A. 2012. Save the Environment Using Cell Phones. Sustainable-Sphere. Web. Is Your Cell Phone Sustainable? 2011. Sustainable Business, Green Business, Renewable Energy, Organic Green Investing, Green Capital. Web. Johnstone, A. 2013. Mobile Pho nes and Environmental Sustainability. Adam M. Johnston, B.A. | Freelance Writer on Renewable Energy, Technology, Globalization, Soccer, and Video Games. Web. Mobile Phones n.d., UL Environment. Web. Mobile phone industry takes baby steps toward sustainability 2009. English | Radio Netherlands Worldwide. Web. Sustainable Mobile Phone n.d., Lowell Center for Sustainable Production. Web. Sustainable mobile products 2013, January 5. Cell Phones and Smartphones Nokia – USA. Web. Technology Environmental Sustainability Initiatives n.d., ATT Cell Phones, U- verse, Digital TV, DSL Internet, and Phone Service. Web.

Saturday, February 22, 2020

History and Historiography Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

History and Historiography - Essay Example In other words, the different perceptions of historians who have come and gone in the past can be studied with the help of historiography. Furthermore, it is very hard to understand the history, as the historiography depends mainly on the supporting characters of every time, who influences the historians, and thus, one cannot understand the reality of the past properly. In addition, historiography is hard, but it has given a sense of curiosity to the historians, as well as, humans, in order to discover the hidden facts of human life. (History and Historiography, n.d.) Moreover, a specific process is considered by the historians for the obtaining, as well as, transmission of historical knowledge to the others. In this regard, this specific process is studied by the historiography. In the past, different methods have been utilized for obtaining hidden facts related to the human lives, as well as, older civilizations. As earlier mentioned in the paper, political influences also play a crucial role in the writing of history, as historians used to write under the banner of an Empire, or a Kingdom. Thus, it is the responsibility of historiography to examine the processes of history, which involved influences, situations, politics, etc. (Clark, 1994) In this regard, some of the main characteristics of written history, which is examined and evaluated by the historiography, are sources, audience, interpretation, biasness, etc. Furthermore, all the historical works contain a body, which has been referred as the historiography. However, it has been observed that most of the tools related to the written history have been changed, which results in the diversified meanings and relations of historiography. Thus, it is very hard to define the term historiography in one sentence, and different people will relate different interpretations with it. Moreover, breaking of historiography has often been done in different perceptions by diverse humans. At some places, religion has been taken as the base of the historiography, such as Historiography of Islam, or Historiography of Christianity, etc. However, regions or countries have been considered as the bases of historiography at other places, such as, Historiography of British, or Historiography of America, etc. Furthermore, historiography consists of a number of fields, such as, social, oral, etc, which changes the approaches that are considered by the historians. (Clark, 1994) In the nineteenth century, mass literature of historiography has been observed due to the commencement of professional and academic historians around the world. "The reasons why British history has not been written are good, in the sense that they follow naturally enough from the adoption of a limited, if perfectly legitimate, conception of the historian's function". (Pocock, 1982) Background The sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries have been roughly related with the history of Great Britain by the historians. They have termed it as ancient history of early modern Britain. In this regard, so